GENERAL INFORMATION OF BANDUNG CITY
Bandung is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it Indonesia's 2nd largest metropolitan with 8,495,928 inhabitants at The 2015 Central Bureau of Statistics data. It is the nation's third most populous city, with over 2.6 million (2015).
Located 768 meters (2,520 feet) above sea level, approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) south east of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler year-round temperatures than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains. This is the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the colony capital from Batavia (modern-day Jakarta) to Bandung.
The Dutch colonials first built tea plantations around the mountains in the eighteenth century, and a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the colonial capital of Batavia (180 kilometers (112 miles) to the northwest). The Dutch inhabitants of Bandung demanded establishment of a municipality (gemeente), which was granted in 1906, and Bandung gradually developed into a resort city for plantation owners. Luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafés and European boutiques were opened, hence the city was nicknamed Parijs van Java (Dutch: "The Paris of Java").
After Indonesia declared independence in 1945, the city experiencing rapid development and urbanization, transforming Bandung from an idyllic town into a dense 16,500 people / km2 (per square kilometer) metropolitan area, a living space for over 8.5 million people. New skycrapers, high-rise buildings, bridges, gardens have been constructed. Natural resources have been heavily exploited, especially by conversion of protected areas into highland villas and real estate and, though the city has encountered many problems, Bandung still Attracts large numbers of tourists, weekend sightseers and migrants from other parts of Indonesia.
Bandung will be supporting as one of the host cities of 2018 Asian Games. Current international airport redevelopment is completed in 2016. To improve infrastructure, the construction of Jakarta-Bandung High Speed Rail and Bandung Metro Capsule, a type of indigenous Automated People Mover (APM) will start in 2017. The new Bandung Kertajati International Airport will will Be completed as early as 2018, just in time for the games.
GEOGRAPHYBandung, the capital of West Java province, located about 180 kilometers (110 mi) southeast of Jakarta, is the third largest city in Indonesia. Its elevation is 768 meters (2,520 ft) above the sea level and is surrounded by up to 2,400 meters (7,900 feet) (7,874 ft) high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain. The 400 km2 flat of central Bandung plain is situated in the middle of 2,340.88 km2 wide of the Bandung Basin; The basin comprises Bandung, the Cimahi city, part of Bandung Regency, part of West Bandung Regency, and part of Sumedang Regency. The basin's main river is the Citarum; One of its branches, the Cikapundung, divides Bandung from north to south before it merges with Citarum again in Dayeuhkolot. The Bandung Basin is an important source of water for potable water, irrigation and fisheries, with its 6,147 million m³ of groundwater being a major reservoir for the city.
The northern section of Bandung is hillier than other parts of the city, and the distinguished truncated flat-peak shapes of the Tangkuban Perahu volcano (Tangkuban Perahu literally means 'upside-down boat') can be seen from the city to the north. Long-term volcanic activity has created fertile andisol soil in the north, suitable for intensive rice, fruit, tea, tobacco and coffee plantations. In the south and east, alluvial soils are deposited by the Cikapundung river predominate.
Geological data shows that Mount Sunda, erected up to 3,000-4,000 meters (9,800-13,100 feet) during the Pleistocene age. Two large-scale eruptions took place; The first formed the basin and the second (est 55.000 Before Present) blocked the Citarum river, turning the basin into a lake known as the Great Prehistoric Lake of Bandung. The lake drained away; For those who are the subject of ongoing debate among geologists.
CLIMATEBandung experiences tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to Köppen climate classification as the driest month precipitation total is below 60 millimeters (2.4 in), bordering with subtropical highland climate. The wettest month is February with precipitation totals 255.0 millimeters (10.04 in), while the driest month is September with precipitation totals 50.0 millimeters (1.97 in). The average temperature throughout the year is due to the altitude influence. The average temperature of the year has its variation due to its location near the equator.
HISTORYThe official name of the city during the colonial Dutch East Indies period was Bandoeng.
The earliest reference to the area dates back to 1488, although archaeological findings suggest a type of Cikapundung River and around the lake from Bandung. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) established plantations in the Bandung area. In 1786, a supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was constructed. In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte, French Emperor and conqueror of much of Europe including the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to improve the defensive systems of Java to protect against the British in India.
Daendels built a road, stretching approximately 1,000 km (620 mi) from the west to the east coast of Java, passing through Bandung. In 1810, the road was laid down in Bandung and was named De Groote Postweg Or the 'Great Post Road'), the present-day location of Asia-Africa Street. Under Daendels' orders, R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, the Chief Administrator of the Bandung regency at that time, moved from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (Bandung well), the present-day site of the city square (alun- Alun). He built his dalem (palace), the grand mosque and the public-official meeting place in the classical Sundanese orientation, with the pendopo facing
Tangkuban Perahu mountain, which was believed to have a mystical ambience.
In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was completed, boosting light industry in Bandung. Chinese flocked into the city to help run facilities, services and as vendors. The area adjacent to the train station is still recognisable as the old Chinatown district. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality) and then twenty years later stadsgemeente (city municipality).
Beginning of time the early 1920s, the Dutch East Indies government made plans to move their capital from Batavia to Bandung. Accordingly, during this decade, the Dutch colonial government commenced construction of military barracks, the central government building (Gouvernments Bedrijven, the present-day Gedung Sate) and other government buildings. However, this plan, was cut short by World War II, after which the Dutch Declaration of Independence.
The fertile area of the Parahyangan Mountains surrounding Bandung supports productive tea plantations. In the nineteenth century, Franz Junghuhn introduced the cinchona (kina) plant. With its cooler elevated landscape, surrounded by major plantations, Bandung is an exclusive European resort area. Rich plantation owners visited the city on weekends, attracting ladies and business people from the capital, Batavia. Braga Street grew into promenade street with cafés, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, were built in the vicinity of the Concordia Society, a club house for the wealthy with a large ballroom and a theater. The nickname "Parijs van Java" was given to the city.
After the Indonesian Independence in 1945, Bandung was designated the capital of West Java province. During the 1945-1949 independence struggle against the Netherlands seeking to retake its colonies in the "Dutch East Indies", some of the heaviest battles occurred in and around Bandung. At the end of World War II Dutch troops were virtually absent in Java. To assist the restoration of Dutch sovereignty, the British military commander set up an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave the city. In response, on March 24, 1946, much of the southern part of Bandung was deliberately set alight as the combatants left; An event known as Bandung Lautan Api or the 'Bandung Sea of Fire'.
In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference - also known as the Bandung Conference - was hosted in Bandung by President Soekarno, and attended by the heads of states representing twenty-nine independent countries from Asia and Africa. The conference venue was at the Gedung Merdeka, the former Concordia Society building. The conference announced 10 points of declaration for the promotion of world peace promotion and for opposition against colonialism, and is known as the Declaration of Bandung. This is followed by a wave of nationalism movements around the globe which remaps world politics. The conference was also the first international conference of the people of color in the history of mankind. Richard Wright in his book, The Color Curtain, claims that there was the epic meaning of the conference for people of color around the world.
In 1987, the city boundary was expanded by the 'Greater Bandung' (Bandung Raya) plan; With a relocation of higher concentration development zones outside the city in an attempt to dilute population density in the old city. During this development, the city core was often uprooted, with old buildings torn down, lot sizes regrouped and rezoned, changing idyllic residential areas to commercial zones with bustling chain supermarkets, malls, banks and upscale developments.
In 2005, an Asian-African Conference was held in Bandung, President of China Hu Jintao, Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh, President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki, President of Nigeria Obasanjo, and other luminaries
DEMOGRAPHYIn 2005 the population of Bandung was 2,290,464, with a density of 13,693 / km2 (35,465 / sq mi). The May 2010 census enumerated 2,394,873 people,. Based on data from the Indonesian Statistics Department, the population of Bandung in 2014 was 2,470,802 - making Bandung the third largest city in Indonesia.
The Majority of Bandung's population are of Sundanese descent. Javanese are the largest minority and mostly come from nearby Central Java and the eastern part of Java. Other minorities include Minang, Minahasan, Chinese, Batak, Malay, Korean, Indian, and Japanese. Bandung also possesses significant international communities, compared with other Indonesian cities.
Bandung is home to numerous examples of Dutch colonial architecture; Most notably the tropical Art Deco, dubbed New Indies Style. Henri Maclaine-Pont was the first Dutch architects to recognise the importance of combining each architectural style with local cultural traditions. He stressed that modern architecture should interact with local history and native elements.
In 1920, Plate and designed buildings for the first technical university in the Dutch East Indies, Technische Hogeschool te Bandung (the present-day Institute of Technology Bandung), after which he was named as Professor of Architecture at the university. A striking local Sundanese roof style is clearly seen adorning the top of the campus' ceremonial hall, and is embedded in his artwork.
In the same year, another Dutch architect J Gerber designed Gouverments Bedrijven (Government Companies) in line with the colonial government plan to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung. The building is an example of a harmonious mixture between West and East architectural styles, particularly the Italian Renaissance style of arch structures in the wings and pendopo-like structures commonly found in Java in the middle section. The building is known as Gedung Sate, named after the distinguished small satay-shaped structure on the roof, and is today used as the head office of the West Java provincial government and House of Representatives.
The architectural blending of modern and native traditional was followed by several Dutch architects who shaped the city landmarks. In the 1930s, Bandung became known as an architectural laboratory due to the many Dutch architects who experimented with new architectural designs. Albert Aalbers added the streamline moderne style to the Art Deco by designing the DENIS bank (1936) and renovated the Savoy Homann Hotel (1939). C.P.W. Schoemaker was one of architects who strongly added native elements in his artworks, including the Villa Isola (1932), Hotel Preanger (1929), the regional military headquarter (1918), Gedung Merdeka (1921) and ITB Rectorate Building (1925).
Bandung is considered a major & significant cultural hub in Indonesia. Most people in the surrounding province of West Java are Sundanese. Sundanese language is often spoken as informal language for communication in streets, school, campus, work and markets, while Indonesian-Indonesia's national language and a lingua franca among its many ethnic units-is used as the lingua Franca, the official language and the language of government, businesses, and instruction at schools.
Bandung is a popular weekend destination for residents of Jakarta. The cooler climate of the highland plantation area, the varieties of food, the cheaper fashion shops are located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the zoo, are some of the attractions of the city. Bandung is also a popular shopping Destination due to cheap textile and fashion products, especially for Malaysian and Singaporean tourists.
In the 1990s, local designers opened denim clothing stores along Cihampelas Street, which was transformed into a "jeans street". The city attracts people from other big cities to buy local fashion wares, as they are cheaper than branded items. Beside at Cihampelas Street, many factory outlets also opened at Riau Street, Setiabudi Street, and Djuanda Street (known as Dago). Textiles factories on the outskirts of Bandung have opened factory outlets on site selling what is exported (rejected or over-produced export quality items). Bandung Supermal, Bandung Indah Plaza, Ciwalk [clarification needed] (abbreviation of Cihampelas Walk) and Paris van Java are popular shopping centers in Bandung.
Significant tourist sites near Bandung include Tangkuban Prahu volcano crater to the north, the striking White Crater volcano lake, and Patenggang Lake, a lake surrounded by tea plantations about 50 kilometers (31 miles) to the south of the city. Foreign tourist should avoid Tangkuban Perahu. The entrance fees for foreigner is Rp300,000 per person on weekend end, as compared to local Indonesian tourist paying only Rp30,000. The difference between foreigner and local Indonesian entrance fees is too big and not justified to the short view time required to explore the crater.
To view the Bandung Basin clearly in its mountain surroundings, visitors travel to the Bongkor protected forest area (protected forest area), Saung Daweung and Arcamanik; To the slopes of West Manglayang Mountain in an area known as Caringin Tilu, with entry from Padasuka and Cicaheum to the north. The forest is located in 1,500 meters (4,900 feet) above sea level and is covered with pine trees managed by a government corporation Perhutani and can be accessed with 30 minutes drive from downtown.
Visitors going to the north of the city also find Forest Park Ir. H. Djuanda. The Cicaheum area also hosts Bukit Moko, a tourist spot famous for its views and its steel statue of a giant star called Puncak Bintang. Bandung has several museums, such as the Geological Museum of Bandung, the Indonesian Postal Museum, Sri Baduga Museum, and the Asian-African Conference Museum.
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATIONTaxis are widely available. The primary means of public transportation is by minibus, called angkot (from transport = transportation and city = city). They are privately operated and cheap, serving multiple routes throughout the city, but are transported and not known for being comfortable. To find exact angkot routes, information is available through the drivers or at terminals.
City-owned buses, called DAMRI, operate on longer high capacity routes. Bandung has 2 intercity bus terminals: Leuwipanjang, serving buses from the west, and Cicaheum, serving buses from the east. Both are at full capacity and are being replaced by a new terminal at Gedebage on 15 hectares land, after which the old terminals will function as inner city terminals. The new terminal will be located next to the Gedebage railway station near the Gedebage container dry port.